The Arduino Due is the first Arduino board based on a 32-bit ARM core microcontroller. With 54 digital input/output pins, 12 analog inputs, it is the perfect board for powerful larger scale Arduino projects.
The Arduino Due is a microcontroller board based on the Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. It is the first Arduino board based on a 32-bit ARM core microcontroller. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 12 can be used as PWM outputs), 12 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 84 MHz clock, an USB OTG capable connection, 2 DAC (digital to analog), 2 TWI, a power jack, an SPI header, a JTAG header, a reset button and an erase button.
Warning: Unlike most Arduino boards, the Arduino Due board runs at 3.3V. The maximum voltage that the I/O pins can tolerate is 3.3V. Applying voltages higher than 3.3V to any I/O pin could damage the board.
The board contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a micro-USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Due is compatible with all Arduino shields that work at 3.3V and are compliant with the 1.0 Arduino pinout.
The Due follows the 1.0 pinout:
- TWI: SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin.
- IOREF: allows an attached shield with the proper configuration to adapt to the voltage provided by the board. This enables shield compatibility with a 3.3V board like the Due and AVR-based boards which operate at 5V.
- An unconnected pin, reserved for future use.
The SAM3X has 512 KB (2 blocks of 256 KB) of flash memory for storing code. The bootloader is preburned in factory from Atmel and is stored in a dedicated ROM memory. The available SRAM is 96 KB in two contiguous bank of 64 KB and 32 KB. All the available memory (Flash, RAM and ROM) can be accessed directly as a flat addressing space. It is possible to erase the Flash memory of the SAM3X with the onboard erase button. This will remove the currently loaded sketch from the MCU. To erase, press and hold the Erase button for a few seconds while the board is powered.
Pin Mapping for SAM3X – https://www.arduino.cc/en/Hacking/PinMappingSAM3X
- Microcontroller: ATMEL AT91SAM3X8E
- Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V
- Maximum Voltage range: 6-16V
- Operating Voltage: 3.3V
- Digital I/O Pins: 54 (of which 12 provide PWM output)
- Analog Input Pins: 12
- Analog Output Pins: 2 (DAC)
- Total DC Output Current on all I/O lines: 130 mA
- DC Current for 5V Pin: 800 mA
- DC Current for 3.3v Pin: 800 mA
- Flash Memory: 512 KB all available for the user applications
- SRAM: 96 KB (two banks: 64KB and 32KB)
- EEPROM: 4 KB
- Clock Speed: 84 MHz
- LED Built-in: Pin 13
Arduino Due Layout:
Digital I/O: Pins from 0 to 53
Each of the 54 digital pins on the Due can be used as an input or output, using pinMode(),digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 3.3 volts. Each pin can provide (source) a current of 3 mA or 15 mA, depending on the pin, or receive (sink) a current of 6 mA or 9 mA, depending on the pin. They also have an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 100 KOhm. In addition, some pins have specialized functions.
Analog Inputs: pins from A0 to A11 the Due has 12 analog inputs, each of which can provide 12 bits of resolution (i.e. 4096 different values). By default, the resolution of the readings is set at 10 bits, for compatibility with other Arduino boards. It is possible to change the resolution of the ADC with analogReadResolution(). The Due’s analog inputs pins measure from ground to a maximum value of 3.3V. Applying more than 3.3V on the Due’s pins will damage the SAM3X chip. The analogReference() function is ignored on the Due.
Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX)
Serial 1: 19 (RX) and 18 (TX)
Serial 2: 17 (RX) and 16 (TX)
Serial 3: 15 (RX) and 14 (TX) Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data (with 3.3 V level). Pins 0 and 1 are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega16U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip
SPI: SPI header (ICSP header on other Arduino boards) These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. The SPI pins are broken out on the central 6-pin header, which is physically compatible with the Uno, Leonardo and Mega2560. The SPI header can be used only to communicate with other SPI devices, not for programming the SAM3X with the In-Circuit-Serial-Programming technique. The SPI of the Due has also advanced features that can be used with the Extended SPI methods for Due.
CAN: CANRX and CANTX These pins support the CAN communication protocol but are not yet supported by Arduino APIs.
“L” LED: 13 there is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off. It is also possible to dim the LED because the digital pin 13 is also a PWM output.
TWI 1: 20 (SDA) and 21 (SCL)
TWI 2: SDA1 and SCL1. Support TWI communication using the Wire library. SDA1 and SCL1 can be controlled using the Wire1 class provided by the Wire library. While SDA and SCL have internal pullup resistors, SDA1 and SCL1 have not. Adding two pullup resistor on SDA1 and SCL1 lines is required for using Wire1.
The AREF pin is connected to the SAM3X analog reference pin through a resistor bridge. To use the AREF pin, resistor BR1 must be desoldered from the PCB.
- DAC1 and DAC2 These pins provides true analog outputs with 12-bits resolution (4096 levels) with the analogWrite() function. These pins can be used to create an audio output using the Audio library.
Please note that DAC output range is actually from 0.55 V to 2.75 V only.
Other pins on the board:
- AREF Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference().
- Reset Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board.
Vin. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.
5V.This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 – 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don’t advise it.
3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 800 mA. This regulator also provides the power supply to the SAM3X microcontroller.
GND. Ground pins.
IOREF. This pin on the Arduino board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. A properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs for working with the 5V or 3.3V.